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Paul Finkelman

Paul Finkelman

John E. Murray Visiting Professor of Law

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Professor Paul Finkelman is one of the nation's foremost experts in constitutional law, American legal history, race relations and the law, African American History, the American Civil War, the First Amendment, and legal issues surrounding baseball. He is the author of more than 200 scholarly articles and more than 40 books, and his work on legal history and constitutional law has been cited four times by the United States Supreme Court, numerous other courts, and in many appellate briefs. In 2014 he was ranked as the fifth most cited legal historian in American legal scholarship in Brian Leiter’s “Top Ten Law Faculty (by area) in Scholarly Impact, 2009-2013.”

Professor Finkelman has most recently served as scholar-in-residence at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia; a senior fellow in the University of Pennsylvania Program on Democracy, Citizenship, and the Constitution; and as a visiting law professor at the University of Saskatchewan. He has previously served as a distinguished visiting professor at Duke Law School, Miami Law School, and Brooklyn Law School, and served as a tenured professor of law and the President William McKinley Distinguished Professor of Law and Public Policy from 2006-2013 at Albany Law School, teaching constitutional law and related subjects.

Fellow in Law and Humanities, Harvard Law School, 1982-83
PhD, University of Chicago, 1976
MA, University of Chicago, 1972
BA, Syracuse University, 1971


Selected Publications:


  • American Legal History: Cases and Materials. With Kermit L. Hall and James W. Ely, Jr. New York: Oxford University Press, 5th ed. 2016 (in press).
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford: A Brief History With Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2nd ed. 2016 (in press).
  • Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson. 3rd ed., New York: Routledge, 2014.
  • Justice and Legal Change on the Shores of Lake Erie: A History of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. Co-edited with Roberta Sue Alexander. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.
  • Congress and the Crisis of the 1850’s. Co-edited with Donald R. Kennon. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.
  • Millard Fillmore. New York: Times Books, 2011.
  • In the Shadow of Freedom: The Politics of Slavery in the National Capital. Co-edited with Donald R. Kennon. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2011.
  • A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States. Co-Authored with Melvin I. Urofsky. 2 vols. 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011
  • Constitutional Law In Context. With Michael Kent Curtis, J. Wilson Parker, Davison M. Douglas, and Michael G. Ross. 2 vols. 3rd ed., Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2011.
  • The Dred Scott Case: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law. Co-edited with David Thomas Konig and Christopher Alan Bracey. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010.
  • Race and the Constitution: From the Philadelphia Convention to the Age of Segregation. Washington, DC: American Historical Association, 2010.
  • Milestone Documents in African American History: Exploring the Primary Sources of Notable Americans. Editor-in-Chief. 4 vols. Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2010.
  • A Brief Narrative of the Case and Tryal of John Peter Zenger. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010.
  • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-First Century. Editor-in-Chief. 5 vols. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • The Political Lincoln: An Encyclopedia. Co-edited with Martin J. Hershock. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009.
  • Encyclopedia of United States Indian Policy and Law. Co-edited with Tim Alan Garrison. 2 vols. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009.
  • Milestone Documents of American Leaders: Exploring the Primary Sources of Notable Americans. Editor-in-Chief. 4 vols. Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2009.
  • Congress and the Emergence of Sectionalism: From the Missouri Compromise to the Age of Jackson. Co-edited with Donald R. Kennon. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2008.
  • Landmark Decisions of the United States Supreme Court. 2nd Edition. With Melvin I. Urofsky. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2008.
  • Terrorism, Government, and Law: National Authority and Local Autonomy in the War on Terror. Co-edited with Susan N. Herman. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008.
  • Documents of American Constitutional and Legal History. Co-edited with Melvin I. Urofsky. 2 vols. 3rd edition. New York: Oxford, 2008.
  • Milestone Documents of American History: Exploring the Primary Sources that Shaped America. Editor-in-Chief. 4 vols. Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2008.
  • A History of Michigan Law. Co-edited with Martin J. Hershock. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2006. Recipient of Annual Book Award from the Michigan Historical Society, 2007; Designated a Michigan Notable Book for 2007 by the Library of Michigan.
  • Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass. Editor-in-Chief. 3 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • The Encyclopedia of the New American Nation. Editor-in-Chief. 3 vols. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribners Sons/Gale, 2006.
  • Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. Editor-in-Chief. 3 vols. New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • Terrible Swift Sword: The Legacy of John Brown. Co-edited with Peggy A. Russo. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2005.
  • Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. Co-edited with Cary D. Wintz. 2 vols. New York: Routledge, 2004.
  • Defending Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Old South. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. Cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin (2013).
  • The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference. With Margaret Wagner and Gary W. Gallagher. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002.
  • The Encyclopedia of American Political History. Co-edited with Peter Wallenstein. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2001.
  • Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. 3 Vols. Editor-in-Chief. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2001.
  • Religion and American Law: An Encyclopedia. Editor-in-Chief. New York: Garland, 2000.
  • Impeachable Offenses: A Documentary History from 1787 to the Present. With Emily Van Tassel. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998.
  • Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. 2 Vols. Co-edited with Joseph C. Miller. New York: Macmillan, 1998.
  • Slavery and the Law. Editor and author of two chapters. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997.
  • His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid. Editor and author of two chapters. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1995.
  • Baseball and the American Legal Mind. With Spencer Waller and Neil Cohen. New York: Garland, 1995.
  • Toward a Usable Past: Liberty Under State Constitutions. Co-Edited with Stephen Gottlieb. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1991.
  • The Law of Freedom and Bondage: A Casebook. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Press and NYU School of Law, 1986.
  • Slavery in the Courtroom. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1985. Recipient of the 1986 Joseph L. Andrews Award from the American Association of Law Libraries. Reprint: Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange, 1996.
  • An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism, and Comity. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.   Reprint: Union, NJ: Law Book Exchange, 2001.

Selected Law Review Publications

  • Frederick Douglass’s Constitution:  From Garrisonian Abolitionist to Lincoln Republican, Missouri Law Review (2016), (n press).
  • Security, Privacy, and Technology Development: The Impact on National Security, Texas A & M Law Review (co-authored with Abraham R. Wagner) (2016) (in press).
  • The Living Constitution and the Second Amendment: Poor History, False Originalism, and a Very Confused Court, 37 Cardozo Law Review 623-663 (2015).
  • The Necessity of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Difficulty of Overcoming Almost a Century of Voting Discrimination, 76 Louisiana Law Review 181-223 (2015).
  • Coping With A New “Yellow Peril”: Japanese Immigration, The Gentlemen’s Agreement, and the Coming of World War II, 117 West Virginia Law Review 1409-1459 (2015).
  • Lincoln v. The Proslavery Constitution: How a Railroad Lawyer’s Constitutional Theory Made Him the Great Emancipator, 47 St. Mary’s Law Journal 63-134 (2015).
  • Human Liberty, Property in Human Beings, and the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, 53 Duquesne Law Review 453-482 (2015).
  • The Long Road to Dignity: The Wrong of Segregation and What the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Had to Change, 74 Louisiana Law Review 1039-1094 (2014).
  • Original Intent and the Fourteenth Amendment: Into the Black Hole of Constitutional Law, 89 Chicago-Kent Law Review 1019-1063 (2014).
  • Who Counted, Who Voted, and Who Could They Vote For, 58 St. Louis University Law Review 1071-1095 (2014).
  • Francis Lieber and the Modern Law of War, 80 University of Chicago Law Review 2071-2032 (2013).
  • How the Proslavery Constitution Led to the Civil War, 43 Rutgers Law Journal 405-38 (2013).
  • “I Could Not Afford to Hang Men For Votes”: Lincoln the Lawyer, Humanitarian Concerns, and the Dakota Pardons, 39 William Mitchell Law Review 405-449 (2013). 
  • Overdose: The Failure of the U.S. Drug War and Attempts at Legalization: Introduction, co-authored with Michael W.Gadomski, 6 Albany Government Law Review vii-x (2013).
  • Why Access to Water was Never a "Right": Historical Perspectives on American Water Law, 18 Willamette Journal of  International Law & Dispute Resolution 168-184 (2010) (actually published 2013).
  • Coming to Terms with Dred Scott: A Response to Daniel A. Farber, 39 Pepperdine Law Review 49-74 (2012).
  • Defining Slavery Under A “Government Instituted for Protection of the Rights of Mankind,” 35 Hamline Law Review 551-590 (2012).
  • States’ Rights, Southern Hypocrisy, and the Coming of the Civil War, 45 Akron Law Review 449-478 (2012).
  • Breaking the Back of Segregation: Why Sweatt Matters, 36 Thurgood Marshall Law Review 1-37 (2010) (actually published in 2012).
  • The Cost of Compromise and the Covenant with Death, 38 Pepperdine Law Review 845-888 (2011).
  • When International Law Was a Domestic Problem, 44 Valparaiso University Law Review 779-823 (2010).
  • The First Federal Human Rights Legislation: Suppressing the African Slave Trade, 3 The Crit 20-63 (2010).
  • Lincoln and Emancipation: Constitutional Theory, Practical Politics, and the Basic Practice of Law, 35 Journal of Supreme Court History 243-66 (2010).
  • Introduction: Symposium on Lincoln’s Legacy: Enduring Lessons of Executive Power (co-authored with Ali A. Chaudhry), 3 Albany Government Law Review ix-xiv (2010).
  • The Constitution, the Supreme Court, and History, 88 Texas Law Review 353-390 (2009).
  • John McLean: Moderate Abolitionist and Supreme Court Politician, 62 Vanderbilt Law Review 519-65 (2009).
  • Lincoln, Emancipation and the Limits of Constitutional Change, 2008 Supreme Court Review 349-387 (2009).
  • The American Suppression of the African Slave Trade: Lessons on Legal Change, Social Policy, and Legislation, 42 Akron Law Review 433-470 (2009).
  • Race, Federalism, and Diplomacy: The Gentlemen's Agreement a Century Later, 56 Osaka [Japan] University Law Review 1-30 (2009).
  • Was Dred Scott Correctly Decided? An “Expert Report” For the Defendant, 12 Lewis & Clark Law Review 1219-1252 (2008).
  • It Really Was About a Well Regulated Militia, 59 Syracuse Law Review 267-82 (2008).  Cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in McDonald et al. v. City of Chicago (2010).
  • School Vouchers, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Williams, and Protecting the Faithful: Warnings from the Eighteenth Century and the Seventeenth Century on the Danger of Establishments to Religious Communities, 2008 Brigham Young University Law Review 525-555 (2008).
  • Symposium on America’s Constitution: A Biography, 59 Syracuse Law Review 49-55 (2008).
  • Foreign Law and American Constitutional Interpretation: A Long and Venerable Tradition, 63 NYU Annual Survey of American Law 29-62 (2007).
  • Scott v. Sandford: The Court’s Most Dreadful Case and How it Changed History, 82 Chicago-Kent Law Review 3-48 (2007).
  • Kermit L. Hall:  A Life in Legal History and Scholarship, 57 Syracuse Law Review 357-59 (2007).
  • Thomas Jefferson, Original Intent, and the Shaping of American Law: Learning Constitutional Law from the Writings of Jefferson, 62 NYU Annual Survey of American Law 45-84 (2006).

Amicus Briefs

  • Brief of Paul Finkelman and 75 Other Historians and Scholars as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action, Integration, and Immigrant Rights and Fight for Equality by Any Means Necessary (BAMN) et. al., October Term, 2013.
  • Brief for Paul Finkelman, Steven K. Green, Michael I. Meyerson, John Ragosta, and 36 Other Legal Historians and Scholars of Religion and American Law as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents, Town of Greece v. Galloway, October 2013 Term. Cited by Justice Kagan in her dissent.
  • Brief of Historians on Early American Legal, Constitutional and Pennsylvania History as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondent, McDonald v. City of Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 1317 (2010) (No. 08-1521).
  • Brief for English/Early American Historians as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents, McDonald v. City of Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 1317 (2010) (No. 08-1521).
  • Brief of Thirty-Four Professional Historians and Legal Historians as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents, McDonald v. City of Chicago, 130 S.Ct. 1317 (2010) (No. 08-1521).
  • Brief of Scholars of Nineteenth-Century American Legal History as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioners, Kiyemba v. Obama, 130 S.Ct. 1235 (2009) (No. 08-1234).
  • Brief for Amici Curiae Founding-Era Historians and Experts in American Legal History in Support of Petitioner,  Al-Marri v. Spagone, et al, 129 S.Ct. 1054 (2009) (No. 08-368).
  • Brief for Amicus Curiae Civil War Historians in Support of Petitioner,  Al-Marri v. Spagone, et al., 129 S.Ct. 1545 (2009) (No. 08-368).
  • Brief for Motion for Leave to File Amicus Curiae Brief and Brief of Historians Supporting Respondent, CBOCS West, Inc. v. Humphries, 128 S.Ct. 1951 (2008) (No. 06-1431).
  • Brief of Amici Curiae Jack N. Rakove, Saul Cornell, David T. Konig, Williams J. Novak, Lois G. Schwoerer, et al. in Support of Petitioners, District of Columbia, et al. v. Heller, 128 S.Ct. 2783 (2008) (No. 07-290).
  • Brief of Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioners, Al Odah, et. al. v. United States of America, et al., 128 S.Ct. 2229 (2007) (No. 06-1196).
  • Brief for Legal and Religious Historians and Law Scholars Paul Finkelman… [et al.] as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents, Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation, 2006 WL 1930143 (Appellate Brief) (N.Y., April 12, 2006) (No. 06-157).
  • Brief of Amici Curiae New York Law Professors in Support of Plaintiffs-Appellants, Hernandez and Cohen, et al. v. Robles, et al., N.Y. Ct. App. (No. 06-0086) (2006).
  • Brief of Amici Curiae, Legal and Historical Scholars, in Support of Petitioners Addressing the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, Al Odah, et al. v. United States of America, et al., 2006 WL 6589417 (Appellate Brief) (C.A.D.C., March 30, 2006) (Nos. 05-5064; 05-5095 through 05-5116; 05-5062; 05-5063).
  • Brief Amicus Curiae of Legal Historians and Law Scholars on Behalf of Respondents, McCreary County, Kentucky, et al. v. American Civil Liberties Union of Kentucky, et al., 2005 WL 166586 (Appellate Brief) (U.S., January 21, 2005) (No. 03-1693).
  • Brief Amici Curiae of Historians in Support of Petitioners, Tory v. Cochran, 2004 WL 2582553 (Appellate Brief) (U.S., November 10, 2004) (No. 03-1488).
  • Brief of the Virginia Wineries Association as Amicus Curiae in support of Petitioners, Swedenburg v. Kelly, 2004 WL 1731153 (Appellate Brief) (U.S., July 29, 2004) (No. 03-1274).
  • Brief Amicus Curiae of Historians and Law Scholars in Support of Respondent, Elk Grove Unified School District, et al. v. Newdow, 2004 WL 298112 (Appellate Brief) (U.S., February 13, 2004) (No. 02-1624).

Selected Book Chapters, Journal (Non-Law Review) Articles, and Essays

  • Almost a Free State: The Indiana Constitution of 1816 and the Problem of Slavery, 111 Indiana Magazine of History 64-95 (2015).
  • Blasphemy and Free Thought in Jacksonian America: The Case of Abner Kneeland, in Profane:  Sacrilegious Expression in a Multicultural Age (eds. Christopher S. Grenda, Chris Beneke, and David Nash) (Oakland, Cal. and London:  University of California Press, 2014) 119-40.
  • The Origins of Colorism in Early American Law," in Color Matters: Skin Tone Bias and the Myth of a Post-Racial America (ed. Kimberly Jade Norwood)  (New York and London:  Routledge, 2014) 29-43.
  • States’ Rights, Southern Hypocrisy, and the Crisis of the Union, in Union & States’s Rights: A History and Interpretation of Interposition, Nullification, and Secession 150 Years After Sumter (ed. Neil H. Cogan) (Akron:  University of Akron Press, 2014) 51-79.
  • James Buchanan, Dred Scott, and the Whisper of Conspiracy, in James Buchanan and the Coming of the Civil War (eds. John W. Quist and Michael J.Birkner) (Tallahassee, FL: University of Florida Press, 2013) 20-45.
  • Slavery’s Constitution: The Creation of America’s Covenant With Death, in Is the American Constitution Obsolete (ed. Thomas J. Main) (Durham, N.C.:  Carolina Academic Press, 2013) 43-67.
  • The Roots of Religious Freedom in Early America: Religious Toleration and Religious Diversity in New Netherland and Colonial America, 34 Nanzan Review American Studies 1-26 (2012). (Published at Nanzan University, Nogaya, Japan)
  • Slavery, (co-authored with Seymour Drescher) in The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law (eds. Bardo Fassbender and Anne Peters) (Oxford, Eng.:  Oxford University Press, 2012): 890-916.  Quoted in Black’s Law Dictionary for Definition of Slavery 1600-1001(2010).
  • From Slavery to Freedom in a Galaxy Far, Far Away, in Star Wars and History (eds. Nancy R. Reagin and Janice Liedl) (Hoboken, N.J.:  John Wiley and Sons, 2012): 228-53.
  • Slavery in the United States: Persons or Property?, in The Legal Understanding of Slavery From the Historical to the Contemporary (ed. Jean Allain) (Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 2012): 105-134.
  • Toleration and Diversity in New Netherland and the Duke’s Colony:  The Roots of America’s First Disestablishment, in No Establishment of Religion:  America’s Original Contribution to Religious Liberty (eds.. T. Jeremy Gunn and John Witte, Jr.) (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012): 125-157.
  • A Political Show Trial in the Northern District:  The Oberlin-Wellington Fugitive Slave Rescue Case, in Justice and Legal Change on the Shores of Lake Erie:  A History of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Ohio.  (eds. Paul Finkelman and  Roberta Sue Alexander). Athens, OH:  Ohio University Press, 2012): 15-36.
  • The Appeasement of 1850, in Congress and the Crisis of the 1850’s (eds. Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon) (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012): 36-79.
  • The Historical Context of the Fourteenth Amendment, in Infinite Hope & Finite Disappointment:  The Story of the First Interpreters of the Fourteenth Amendment (ed. Elizabeth Reilly,) (Akron: University of Akron Press, 2011): 35-55.
  • Slavery, the Constitution, and the Origins of the Civil War, 25 OAH Magazine of History 14-18, 2011.
  • John Brown: America’s First Terrorist? in 43 Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, 16-27 (Spring 2011).
  • The Civil War, Emancipation, and the Thirteenth Amendment: Understanding Who Freed the Slaves, in The Promises of Liberty: The History and Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment 36-57 (ed. Alexander Tsesis) (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).
  • United States Slave Law, in The Oxford Handbook of Slavery in the Americas 424-446 (eds. Robert L. Paquette and Mark M. Smith) (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  • "A Land that Needs People for its Increase":  How the Jews Won the Right to Remain in New Netherland, in New Essays in American Jewish History 19-50 and 488-496 [notes]   (eds. Pamela S. Nadell, Jonathan D. Sarna, and Lance J. Sussman) (Cincinnati:  American Jewish Archives of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 2010).
  • The Strange Career of Dred Scott: From Fort Armstrong to Guantanamo Bay, in The Dred Scott Case: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law 227-251 (eds. David Thomas Konig, Paul Finkelman, and Christopher Alan Bracey) (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010).
  • Barack Hussein Obama—An Inspiration of Hope, an Agent for Change, in African Americans and the Presidency: The Road to the White House 207-228 (eds. Bruce Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz) (New York: Routledge 2010).

(Additional publications, see CV and SSRN.)


Selected Professional Activities

  • Scholars Advisory Panel, National Constitution Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
  • Senior Fellow, Penn Program on Democracy, Citizenship, and Constitutionalism, University of Pennsylvania, 2014-15.
  • Scholar-in-Residence, National Constitution Center, 2014-15.
  • John Marshall Harlan Visiting Scholar, Transylvania University, 2013.
  • John Hope Franklin Visiting Professor of American Legal History, Duke Law School, 2012.
  • Scholar in Residence, Nanzan University, Nagoya Japan; Short Term Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 2011-12.
  • Nathan I. Huggins Lectures, Harvard University, 2009.
  • Scholar in Residence, Mississippi State University (African American Studies Program), 2009.
  • Visiting Scholar, Osaka University, 2008.
  • Scholar in Residence, University of Akron College of Law, 2008.
  • Recipient of Albany Law School Award for Distinguished Scholarship, 2007.
  • Scholar in Residence, University of Seattle School of Law, 2007.
  • Residential Research Fellowship, Gilder Lehman Center for the Study of Slavery, Abolition, and Resistance, Yale University, 2006.
  • Research Fellowship, The Gilder Lehrman Institute, New York City, 2006.
  • Scholar in Residence, John Marshall College of Law, Chicago, Ill. 2005.
  • Scholar in Residence, The Center for Inquiry, Amherst, New York, 2005.
  • Research Fellowship, University of Michigan, Bentley Library, 2005.
  • Scholar in Residence, Youngstown State University (History), 2004.
  • Organization of American Historians, Distinguished Lecturer, 2001-
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Short Term Fellowship, 2001.
  • ACLS/American National Biography Writing Fellowship, 1995-96.
  • Virginia Social Science Association, Historian of the Year, 1995.
  • National Endowment of the Humanities, Summer Stipend, 1985, 1978, 1994.
  • American Philosophical Society, Research Grant, 1994.
  • Brooklyn Law School, Moot Court Honor Society, Faculty Coach Award, 1992.
  • Indiana Historical Society, Research Grant, 1990.
  • AMPART lecturer in Bogota, Columbia, 1989; Germany, 1987.
  • Director, National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for Secondary School Teachers, 1989, 1988, 1986.
  • Project Director, New York Bicentennial Commission, Lecture Series on the Bill of Rights, Fall, 1989.
  • New York State Archives, Research Grant, 1987-88.
  • National Endowment for the Humanities Research Fellowship, 1986-87.
  • New York African-American Institute, Research Grant, 1986-87.
  • New Jersey Historical Commission, Research Grant, 1986.
  • Recipient of Joseph L. Andrews Award from American Association of Law Libraries, 1986.
  • American Council of Learned Societies, Study Fellowship, 1982-83.
  • Harvard Law School Liberal Arts Fellowship, 1982-83.
  • American Bar Foundation, Fellowship in Legal History, 1979-80.
  • American Philosophical Society Research Grant, 1979.
  • Project '87 Research Fellowship, 1979.
  • J. Franklin Jameson Fellow at Library of Congress, 1978-79.
  • Mellon Faculty Fellow, Washington University, 1977-78.
  • Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Alpha Theta, Phi Kappa Phi.