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THE DEADLY PIPELINE WAR:
U.S. AFGHAN POLICY DRIVEN BY OIL INTERESTS

Professor Marjorie Cohn
Thomas Jefferson School of Law
JURIST Contributing Editor

George W. Bush justifies his bombing of Afghanistan as a war against terror. A twin motive, however, is to make Afghanistan safe for United States oil interests.

A few days before September 11, the U.S. Energy Information Administration documented Afghanistan's strategic "geographical position as a potential transit route for oil and natural and gas exports from Central Asia to the Arabian Sea," including the construction of pipelines through Afghanistan.

Prior to September 11, United States policy toward the Taliban was largely influenced by oil. In a new book published in Paris, "Bin Laden, la verite interdite" ("Bin Laden, the forbidden truth"), former French intelligence officer Jean-Charles Brisard and journalist Guillaume Dasquie document a cozy relationship between George W. Bush and the Taliban. The book quotes John O'Neill, former director of anti-terrorism for the FBI, who thought the U.S. State Department, acting on behalf of United States and Saudi oil interests, interfered with FBI efforts to track down Osama bin Laden.

Before he was tapped as Bush's running mate, Dick Cheney was CEO of Halliburton, the biggest oil services company in the world. In a 1998 speech to the "Collateral Damage Conference" of the Cato Institute, Cheney said, "the good Lord didn't see fit to put oil and gas only where there are democratically elected regimes friendly to the United States. Occasionally we have to operate in places where, all things considered, one would not normally choose to go. But, we go where the business is."

Because of the instability in the Persian Gulf, Cheney zeroed in on the world's other major source of oil, the Caspian Sea, whose resources were estimated at $4 trillion by U.S. News and World Report. Cheney told oil industry executives in 1998, "I can't think of a time when we've had a region emerge as suddenly to become as strategically significant as the Caspian."

But Caspian oil, landlocked between Russia, Iran and former Soviet republics, presents formidable transport challenges. Afghanistan is strategically located near the Caspian Sea. In 1994, the U.S. State Department and Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency sought to install a stable regime in Afghanistan to enhance the prospects for Western oil pipelines. They financed, armed and trained the Taliban in its civil war against the Northern Alliance.

In 1995, California-based UNOCAL proposed the construction of an oil pipeline from Turkmenistan, south through Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the Arabian Sea. Yasushi Akashi, U.N. Under-Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs, was critical of "outside interference in Afghanistan" in 1997, which, he said, "is now all related to the battle for oil and gas pipelines. The fear is that these companies and regional powers are just renting the Taliban for their own purposes."

Meanwhile, feminists and Greens in the United States mobilized opposition to UNOCAL's pipeline deal and Washington's covert support of the Taliban, because of the latter's oppression of women. In 1998, after the U.S. bombed Al-Qaeda training camps in retaliation for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Africa, UNOCAL pulled out of the pipeline negotiations.

Once the Taliban are overthrown and the U.S. installs a pro-Western government, lucrative investment opportunities will arise. Rob Sobhani, president of Washington-based Caspian Energy Consulting, said, "Other major energy companies could see big opportunities in a deal crucial to restarting Afghanistan's economy." A new pipeline could produce revenues totaling $100 million.

United States dependence on Middle East -- and soon Caspian -- oil -- has led our government to engage itself in heavy-handed, and deadly, interventions. The development of a sensible U.S. energy policy would obviate the perceived need to dominate other countries.

But there has been an ongoing pipeline war between Russia and the U.S., which support competing pipeline routes. An energy expert at the National Security Council clarified the United States' anti-Russia policy in 1997: "US policy was to promote the rapid development of Caspian energy . . . We did so specifically to promote the independence of these oil-rich countries, to in essence break Russia's monopoly control over the transportation of oil from that region, and frankly, to promote Western energy security through diversification of supply."

Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin recognized this in 1998: "We cannot help seeing the uproar stirred up in some Western countries over the energy resources of the Caspian. Some seek to exclude Russia from the game and undermine its interests. The so-called pipeline war in the region is part of this game."

This pipeline war has taken some curious turns since September 11. A New York Times article in October emphasized new oil cooperation between Russia and the United States. Laurent Ruseckas of Cambridge Energy Research Associates said: "This whole idea of the U.S. and Russia fighting over Caspian oil seems completely outdated. The West would like to see Russian and Caspian oil on stream as quickly as possible."

But after September 11, Russia, which has sustained the Northern Alliance for ten years, provided it with heavy artillery and encouraged it to move into Kabul, in direct contravention of Bush's orders. Eric R. Margolis, author of "War at the Top of the World - The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet," chides Bush's naivete in thinking "the Russians are now our friends." Margolis warns, "the president should understand that where geopolitics and oil are concerned, there are no friends, only competitors and enemies."

At this point, the outcome of U.S.-Russian relations, and the pipeline war, remains uncertain. The deaths and starvation of thousands of Afghanis, however, is a certainty. Regardless of how the black gold is ultimately piped out of the Caspian Sea, the United States should replace its pipeline of bombs with a pipeline of humanitarian assistance to the people of Afghanistan.


Marjorie Cohn is an associate professor at Thomas Jefferson School of Law in San Diego, where she teaches International Human Rights Law. She welcomes comments on this essay at JURIST@law.pitt.edu.

December 7, 2001

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Discussion

JURIST welcomes your reaction to our columns and op-eds...

  • Posted on Sunday December 09, 2001 at 11:41 am
    I have tried without resting to make people understand that the "War on Terrorism" is nothing more and nothing less than an attempt to get the US into a competitive position in the global oil markets. Unfortunately, the vast majority of the people I speak to are still in shock over the attacks of 9-11. Thank you for an article based on legitimate research.

    Stacey Amos
    None. Just a concerned citizen.
    Florida, USA

  • Posted on Sunday December 09, 2001 at 2:06 pm
    Your article is an eye opener to the callousnes with which a human being treats human life. It is less worthy than that of a sheep. to many it is another foot and mouth crisis to be tackled by culling the problematic herd.

    Dr M Aslam
    UK

  • Posted on Sunday December 09, 2001 at 6:28 pm
    I thank the author for the eye opener about the real underlying motives of ex and current "Super-Power" Countries involvement and alliance in the so-called fight against terrorism. It is also unfortunate that those criminals hiding behind "clean clothes" use the Sept 11 incident to play upon the feelings on many world and US people for own personal gains.Please wake up everyone and realise what is really happening.Also those who have woken up i encourage you to circulate this document by Marjorie Cohn

    Mohammed Khodr
    IT Consultant
    Australia

  • Posted on Sunday December 09, 2001 at 8:11 pm
    When all comes out, I wonder if we will realise that 9.11. was "allowed" to happen IN ORDER to have a war in Afghanistan.

    marq
    Germany

  • Posted on Sunday December 09, 2001 at 10:50 pm
    Many, many thanks and salutations to the couragous people like Marjorie Cohn who call "spate a spate." Ah! will the majority American people, wonderful and large-hearted as they are, come to know about such truth as their trust is betrayed by the media people who 24 hours broadcast half-truths and indulge in mis-reporting of the facts to further their own interests and those they willingly or unwillingly serve.

    Nur

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 2:18 am
    I surprise about the human rightsof the government of USA. But Ithink like you some one is very good on understand what ishappning?

    Amin Farhad
    Ex National Consultant on IT (PMED)
    UAE

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 5:02 am
    I think this report is an eye opener. I will keep looking forward to more real reports, rather than corrupted news on TV. Another Suggestion: why can't majority of people in America, can't see the Truth. We need to propogate our facts, and fight for Justice.

    Chris.
    SunTrust
    USA

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 7:58 am
    Most of the population of United states, Canada and Europe are ignorant at a point that all the medias are corrupted and well chase by their goverment and are not able to say thrut. It is unfortunately that these very same goverment always call for freedom but disguise in killing inncoent people much more than terrosrist

    i.d
    canada

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 8:40 am
    God, i hate Bush...him and Arafat...I knew this would happen after reading an article by John Pilger.. to read itgo towww.johnpilger.com

    Screen Name SanDiegoGUY on afghansite.com
    AAYO, Afghan American Youth Org.
    San Diego

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 8:45 am
    I admire Cohen's objectivity, fairness, knowledge and her courage to report facts.I praise her un-biased,objective reporting of events,professionalism and commitment to telling the truth.I hope media in this part of the civilized and democratic world would take a lead from Cohen's example and start fulfilling its moral obligation.

    Sam
    ON, CA

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 9:11 am
    I really enjoyed reading Cohen article.It is very scary to see what has gone on behind our backs. If you want to learn fromanother source check out Michael Parenti. He is a well known professor in United States and he only appeared once on CNN a few years ago and they have made sure he does not appear again. Also Google search William Blum, Robert Fisk, Noam Chomsky , George Monbiot, www.q-news.com, www.counterpunch.org, www.dfn.org. Please pass this information on to as many people as you can.

    Rick
    TX , US

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 9:53 am
    I have to say im very impressed with this piece of truth.At the beginning of this war, I figured the U.S. was doing the right thing, putting an end to terrorism, but I stronglybelieve that there is something else behind this, and I want to thank you for opening my mind once again to the truth andnot letting me become brain washed by the Media, who is just raising business for themselves.

    Mohiba
    independently speaking
    New York, New york

  • Posted on Monday December 10, 2001 at 11:15 am
    Thank you for your excellent article. If our government and media were not controlled by the same small coterie of madmen and the people knew the truth...there would be mucho work for hangmen. Keep up the good work, Margie. Phil, Florida, uSA.

    Phil Sweet
    none
    Florida, uSA

  • Monday December 10, 2001 at 1:18 pm
    I hope that the truth is spoken by the likes of this article's author. What I am worried about is that a world religion like 'Islam' is being associated with terrorism. The people should be told the truth about world politics and world religions.

    Ahmed Richter
    Germany

  • Monday December 10, 2001 at 2:47 pm
    Bush and his gang should be tried as criminals of war. Wake up, people!

    John Fisher

  • Monday December 10, 2001 at 3:15 pm
    I hope all of you were saying the same thing about Clinton as he was bombing Kosovo, but for some reason I bet you all supported that operation. Reacting to an attack that shakes the foundation of this country is not wrong. In order for Cohn's thesis to be correct, it would mean that Clinton and Bush would have had to have been in cohoots. The planning for the attack had been in progress for more than a year. That would mean that it had been planned before Bush took office. Cohn's theoy also neglects the fact that it was Clinton who time after time rejected help from foreign countries to track down bin Laden. I ask you bleading heart liberals, who is really at fault? Surely not Bush, but former President Clinton. You all need to wake up and realize what is real and what is liberal double talk (Cohn). I wonder what her possion was on the Kosovo bombing, bet she thought it was a wonderful humnitarian effort.

    John Smith

  • Monday December 10, 2001 at 7:15 pm
    Ms. Cohn is to be commended on her article. I am familiar with a segment of the planning and work that went into the routing plan for the Unocal and Delta (read Saudi) pipeline to pass through Afganistan and over Pakistan to its port. Reading between the lines, it is apparent that Ms. Cohen is better informed than she has tactfully presented herself.

    Jonson
    Oklahoma, US

  • Monday December 10, 2001 at 8:09 pm
    Living in Afghanistan for 1st 17 years of my life, I realize now how rich Afghanistan is inspite of the misery that has been brought upon us. I lived through the bombing and killing of innocent Afghans during the Soviet invasion. I just can not believe that US is bragging about Human rights and helping Afghanistan. People of AFghanistan by the way are not stupid. They may be illiterate, can not read and write, but they have a brain that works 1000 times better then any computer that can process. They know all of these. They have faught this aggression of the west for many centuries. They have not had a good night sleep for the last 20 years. I am so sick and tired of the west trying to undermine the people of Afghanitan. I am sick and tired of Media digracing the name of humanity. I am sick and tired of leaders manipulating lives for the sake of their own interests. I do not support any suiciders but to me what choices do they have. They are not blind they see everything. How much media can hide. How much media can lie about Islam, poor people? Let's ask the same questions from both sides. What is a terrorist to the eyes of an Afghan. He/she will tell you that a bomber plane and tank and a rocket launcher.But the western has a differnt view manipulated by media of course. Terrorist are Muslims, wearing ruggedy clothes. Live in torn down home (bombed by planes) etc etc etc......Media needs to get their act together before the world collapses.

    Kabul Jaan
    People of Afghanistan
    Kabul, Afghanistan _Part-e-Parwan

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 3:26 am
    Well done..Cohn!! At last the truth is out - see how dirty anddamaging the media can be. Wake up you people of America, you will always be the victim as long as theAmerican Administration stick to their current foreign policy and put their personal interest first before the SAFETY OF THE PEOPLE AMERICA..!

    Sarah
    Thailand

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 6:14 am
    This article is quite interesting, but could have mentionned the links between Hamid Karzai, the new leader chosen by the US for Afghanistan, and the oil companies. You should investigate that.

    Eric Schmitt

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 10:05 am
    The pipeline war article shows how EXTREMELYurgent it is for people to find alternative energy resources to power civilization intothe future. Oil obviously isn't the answer.My pet alternative is nuclear fusion---but itis evidently a very difficult technology. Weshould be spending now to develop alternativesso energy will not be such a source of conflict.

    JohnT
    Kansas USA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 11:28 am
    In August, 2000, the small town daily I read published a column by Ted Rall, wherein he told of the immense oil and gas reserves recently discovered in the Caspian basin.Just hours after the Trade Center towers fell, and talk of retaliation began, I recalled that 13 month-old article.Thank you so much for your clarity and for having the courage to speak out.

    Michael Klaus

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 12:43 pm
    Kudos to Cohn for having the guts to speak the truth. John Ashcroft has stated that anyone who questions him or the Bush Administration is 'giving aid to the enemy'; but the truth is that everyone needs to question U.S. policy right now. We need to shout from the rooftops, if necessary. We can't allow Ashcroft or anyone else to intimidate us.

    Ann Rose Thomas
    Fringefolk.com
    California, U.S.

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 5:37 pm
    In testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives 2/12/98, John J. Maresca - then Vice President, International Relations, Unical Oil Corp. stated that oil revenues could be increased by 500% by 2015 via the Afghanistan oil pipeline (i.e. an immense fortune). He further stated "...From the outset, we have made it clear that construction of our proposed pipeline cannot begin until a recognized government is in place that has the confidence of governments, lenders and our company."

    Gary Evans
    CA/USA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 6:30 pm
    I've been trying to tell this to the people of the Daytona Beach area on the D.B. News-Journal Forum board, but they won't listen. Thanks for restoring my sanity!

    Janie
    Florida, uSA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 8:21 pm
    With the price of gasoline so CHEAP in the good old USA, the truth is insignificant until bodybags starts to flow. For now, the truth or parts thereof including the misery and suffering of OTHERS, is rather comfortable. Romans need not concern with the deeds of Ceasar and cahoots outside of ROME as long as the luxuries are readily available. Long live Roman Prosperity! therefore Long live the Empire!

    Alekskan
    Oil & Gas Construction
    Malaysia S.E.A. Planet Earth

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 8:49 pm
    Thank you, for bringing the truth to the general public, I talk til I am blue in the face, no one wants to know the truth. These plans started long ago with Bush Sr, Jr is only their pawn. Neat way to cut your pipeline path with bombs paid for by taxpayers expense. Only to replace these bombs build by the Carlyle Group (Sr again) at taxpayers expense again, "Who is the sucker, the general public?" "My people parish for lack of knowledge." want more truth? www.AmericanFreePress.net Keep up the good work on truth

    B Crawford
    Ok/USA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 8:54 pm
    More disturbing than the posture assumed in Ms. Cohn's editorial, is the ready cynicism of the community that apparently frequents the Jurist. Recently, I attended a speech offered by Former Secretary of State Albright who dismissed the pipeling theory for the war on terrorism. Such thinly supported speculation and conjecture belongs on the Fox News Channel, not in the forum of responsible discussion. Fortunately for the propogators of such dribble, American men and women are currently defending their right to offer such pedantic observations. This article is irresponsible and biased. It should not enjoy the space or fanfare it has received.

    Chuck Case

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 9:38 pm
    The U.S. may at some future time gain some economic benefits from the Afghan government ergo the U.S. war in Afghanistan is to gain those benefits. This pretty much summarizes Professor Cohn's arguments and the many who have written to lavish praise upon them. The reality however is quite different. U.S. foreign policy, rather than being driven by its economic interests, acts in a way to constantly frustrate them. The U.S. oil industry is extremely anxious to trade with with and invest in Iran and Libya, which are just as anxious to have them back in their countries, but cannot because of U.S. government sanctions on their countries. Professory Cohn herself carefully deletes from her Afghan morality play the fact that although UNOCAL strongly supported U.S. recognition for the Taleban, the U.S. backed away from it both for harboring Bin Laden and for the naievely prosaic goal of supporting women's rights! The blind U.S. backing of Israel and the persecution of Iraq is wildly unpopular among the Persian Gulf states, yet the U.S. persists in it because our obeisance to the Israelis and hatred of Saddam far outweighs our genuine national interests in the region. Is the U.S.'s policy in Afghanistan and the Middle East driven by its economic interests? I only wish it were!

    Michael E. Piston
    Washington, USA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 10:32 pm
    Greetings, This is in response to Marq (in Germany). I am certain my government did not allow the 911 incident to occur. Uncle Sam may play games with our soldiers, but to allow civilian causalities on this scale is absurd. That's not the way we do things over here.

    Brian
    Dallas, Texas, USA

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 10:55 pm
    let's see...The US tells Bin Ladin to go to Afgahanistan and start an organization who wants to "DESTROY AMERICA". They kill over 3000 human beings in an attack on the WTC (I guess the plane tickets were purchased by Bush and company)And now, the oil interest can go to Afgahanistan and take control..... Not for anything, but do you Knuckleheads believe this??????? I'm no fan of the whores of American capitalism but PLEASE.... Lets dig down deep, I'm sure we can get a better conspiracy theory ....How bout: The Vatican was behind the kennedy assassination???

    Ed Mount

  • Tuesday December 11, 2001 at 11:09 pm
    How come this isn't covered in 20/20 or PrimeTime or 60 Minutes????

    Anonymous Concerned

  • Wednesday December 12, 2001 at 12:15 am
    Excellent article. You might be interested in this article aswell: http://www.crazynews.net/afghan-women.html

    Crazy News

  • Wednesday December 12, 2001 at 12:48 pm
    Very good! Now talk about the Bush-bin Laden connections through the Caryle Group in Washington.

    Murray M.
    Canada

  • Wednesday December 12, 2001 at 1:33 pm
    I don't dispute professor Cohen's argument that the American policy toward Afghanistan is motivated by self-interest or in other word the policy is from head not from hearth. But I, not as oil man, as an ordinary Afghan-American strongly beleive that the policy is not that evil as some may think. Is getting a pipline through a country an evil thing to do? There are dozens of countries with miles of piplines and dozens dream to have it in their terain. I think that the pipeline will generate some revenue for the poor Afghans to use to improve their lives and become less dependent on Arabs and others The good outcome from the American or the UN presence in this country will be that for the first time Afghan devided by ethnic and other rivarys become directly expose to the westerns. Afghan had seen enoug of idealogically backwad Arab extremist and corrupt Pakistani generals and brutal Red Army. The pipleline will funnel some western values that we all admire such as freedom of thoughts, social equality and other western institrtions. I am not that mad as professor Cohen sounds. What could have been better for the Afghans than being free from the yoke of opressed Taliban. With regards Wahab Raof Ghafary wahabrg@yahoo.com

    Wahab
    Concern citizen
    United States

  • Thursday December 13, 2001 at 5:18 am
    As a child I was an American. I thought that everyone was. All the school children, teachers,grocer,newpaper boy...then I saw Pr. John Kennedy killed. The public was in shock. One of the best distractions. Most Americans do not even realize (today) that a great coup had killed us as well. Since that time I have witnessed many distractions. Pr. Bill Clinton entertained the country for 8 years. I saw the look of fear on his face the day Pr. Bush 2 gave his "cathedral speech" for the 09/11/01 families, and nation at large. So Bush was going to be the button pusher. Sorry, but there are no wires attached to the button. He will go down as the "Hitler" of his precious freedom..he may even regret steeping out of the cowboy role. Then, again, he may never know what his partners have waiting for him. He declared Osama Bin Laded guilty..knowing that it is quite impossible to try without legitimate proof. Indeed, for Pr. Bush to bring forward anything would in fact, expose himself as a terrorist (www.bushwatch.net/bushmoney.htm). Ah..the ultimate distraction..blow up your country..better yet, insite others to do it for you. Take 30 days off prior..well rested for the bandstand cheers that are sure to follow...of course all of those helicopters Pr. Clinton gave to the UN will sure come in handy...yeehaw cowboy! I feel better now, just knowing that freedom of speech will probably go next and I'll have had a chance to either follow the big distraction or work on my chosen faith..that of practicing forgiveness. PS. I have listened and read all info on Mr. Bin Laden..he had the least mistakes to forgive. Pr. Bush, I am still working on it. Actually, I believe the word "jihad" works here..I am striving to practice my faith in a non-judgemental way. The great America is falling..we are no longer innocent until proven guilty. The fact that 2 million people joined the drug ranks of anti-depressants within 2 months of Sept.2001. In about 6 months there are going to be a lot of zombies...6 milliom Americans. Another day..another coup. God help us to forgive that we may be forgiven..we know NOT what we do.

    dixiecopeland

  • Thursday December 13, 2001 at 4:42 pm
    I also read "Ben Laden : La v駻it interdite" de Jean-Charles Brisard Guillaume Dasque, after it came out. There is not an English edition yet, but it is available from Amazon.fr. Several European papers have also investigated and published Ms Cohn's story earlier, so this not news per se; but, certainly news on this side of the pond. We need give Ms Cohn a cheer for taking the risk to write what the US corporate media harlots would not dare whisper about.

    Gary B. Beckwith
    Maine USA

  • Friday December 14, 2001 at 1:46 pm
    In times such as these, we, United States citizens, have a tendency to stick our heads in the sand and leave the business of running things to those in positions of power in the govt(i.e.,the President, Sec of Defense, Sec of State,the Joint Chiefs,etc),who are in executively appointed positions and not even elected by the citizenry. Unfortunately, by the time we U.S. Americans wake up to the facts, as presented forthrightly by Ms. Cohn, many of our basic civil rights will have been eroded, if not eliminated completely, as well as the very ideals(i.e., freedom of religion,speech,assembly...)that we claim,in the face of the world, to hold so dear! Thank you for allowing me to comment. Keep the faith Ms. Cohn. Maybe one day we will wake up to the validity of your truth.

    Southern Belle
    MISSISSIPPI,U.S.A.

  • Thursday December 20, 2001 at 6:55 pm
    Thanks Marjorie! Your words of truth have truly brightened the Season...keep up the good work.

    Marco E. Lopez
    San Jose, California

  • Friday December 28, 2001 at 10:44 am
    Great Article Marjorie..So now we know.. The foreign policy has never been about love , honor and peace, its all about money and the oil lease (An exerpt from a Hip Hop song I'm writing). No wonder Mutt and Jeff (Putin and Bush) have been so chummy lately.. Makes ya wanna say Hummmm!

    Ed Shepard
    Ohio

  • Friday December 28, 2001 at 2:22 pm
    What power wants, power gets. So what else is new? All one has to do is go back a few hundred years to the beginning history of the United States. The Native American Indian experience with our government served as the precurser - set the ego/ethnocentric tone for subsequent policies/philosophies of economically and politically powerful 'leaders.' If that isn't enough, didn't we learn our lesson regarding the truthfulness and objectivity of the media during Vietnam? And didn't we learn the truth of politics then? If we know our real history, why are we so surprised at what our government is doing NOW? When Kosovo is quiet, we will build a McDonald's there. When Afganistan is 'quiet,' we'll build a pipeline. Our U.S. powers will foment unrest until they get what they want. In the end, what are we (collectively and individually)prepared to do about it? Thank you, Ms. Cohn, for helping keep me informed. R.M.Robinson

    Rose Mary Robinson
    Wisconsin

  • Thursday January 10, 2002 at 8:59 am
    Thank God some one else has the intelligence to see this and the courage to say it. This war is a set up and it was bought and payed for by the oil industry. This war was brought to you by Bush and the fine folks of the oil industry. Actions of US corporatinos do not necessarily represent the wishes of Americans.

    Bill Truth
    Environmental safety consultant
    USA

  • Friday January 25, 2002 at 2:34 pm
    There is another side to this War of Terorism that is having far greater repercussions: the impact of the U.S. Patriot Act on international banking. Under this legidtaltion the U.S. now claims jurisdiction over any foreign bank that maintains a correspondent account with a U.S. banking institution. The consequence of this is that the European banking system has effected a moritorium on accepting any new bank account from Americans, and is sequestering all funds now held on deposit. This consequence is also being effected by banks in the traditional tax haven jurisdicition. The results of this action could be a liquidity crisis in the U.S. Dollar. Field Guidance on New Authorities (Redacted) Enacted in the 2001 Anti-Terrorism Legislation Section 317 Long-arm Jurisdiction Over Foreign Money Launderers Section 1956(b) creates a civil cause of action by the government against any person who commits a money laundering offense. It is an alternative to a criminal prosecution under section 1956(a) that is sometimes used when the offender is a corporation (including a bank) against whom a criminal prosecution is of less importance than a finding of liability and the imposition of a monetary penalty. One defect in prior section 1956(b) was that it created a cause of action only for violations of section 1956(a). As amended by section 317, section 1956(b) now permits the government to base its case on a violation of section 1957, which in many instances will be easier for the government to prove. Second, under prior law there was some question whether the government could bring a section 1956(b) lawsuit against a foreign person, including a foreign bank, that committed a money laundering offense but could not be found in the United States. For example, if employees of a Mexican bank conducted financial transactions that constituted a violation of section 1956(a), and the government wanted to file a lawsuit against the Mexican bank under section 1956(b), there was uncertainty whether the bank would be subject to the jurisdiction of a U.S. court if it had no physical presence in the United States. As amended, section 1956(b) now provides that the court has jurisdiction if the money laundering offense occurred in part in the United States, or the foreign bank has a correspondent account in the United States. Third, section 1956(b) was amended to permit a court to take jurisdiction over an action brought by the government to enforce a forfeiture judgment based on a violation of section 1956. Section 317 provides that if property is ordered forfeited under section 982(a)(1), based on a violation of section 1956, and the government files a lawsuit against a foreign person who has converted that forfeited property to his own use instead of turning it over to the government, the district court will have jurisdiction over the foreign person. What the amendment does is to eliminate any uncertainty over what circumstances will permit a court to exercise long-arm jurisdiction in such cases. Finally, section 317 amends section 1956(b) to authorize a court to enter a restraining order to ensure "that any bank account or other property held by the defendant in the United States is available to satisfy a judgment under this section." The court is also authorized to appoint, at the request of the Attorney General, a receiver to manage assets in three categories of cases: 1) where assets are subject to a civil penalty under section 1956(b); 2) where assets are subject to any civil or criminal forfeiture under sections 981 or 982; and 3) where assets are subject to a restitution order in a section 1956 or 1957 criminal case. This authority both to enter restraining orders and to appoint receivers appears to be limited, however, to cases in which the court is exercising its long-arm authority over a foreign person. Section 318 Laundering Money Through a Foreign Bank 18 U.S.C. ァ 1956 prohibits conducting a transaction involving a financial institution if the transaction involves criminally derived property. Similarly, section 1957 creates an offense relating to the deposit, withdrawal, transfer or exchange of criminally derived funds by, to or through a financial institution. Both statutes employ the definition of financial institution found in 31 U.S.C. ァ 5312. See 18 U.S.C. ァ 1956(c)(6); 18 U.S.C. ァ 1957(f). Under prior law, the definition of financial institution did not explicitly include foreign banks. Such banks arguably were within the meaning of commercial bank or other terms in the statute, but there was some confusion over whether the government could rely on section 5312 to prosecute an offense under either section 1956 or 1957 involving a transaction through a foreign bank, even if the offense occurred in part in theUnited States. Section 318 ends the confusion by explicitly including foreign banks within the definition of financial institution in section 1956(c)(6).

    DK Harms
    USA

  • Tuesday February 26, 2002 at 3:09 pm
    This war and bombing need to stop. These actions are not moral. Indeed, U.S. bombing never should have started. We need to find a solution to this problem in a non-violent, peaceful manner. I am trying to promote this message because it seems like the truth is getting lost. We need to keep our eyes fixed on the poor and the starving. And do whatever we can to help them.

    Marie Anthony Snow
    Tx/usa

  • Tuesday March 05, 2002 at 4:55 pm
    How do we get these facts circulated to more outlets to enlighten more of our population? Keep up the good work, for evil men triumph through the enaction of the good. When you fight fire with fire...everyone ends up homeless and staring at the ashes. Stop the violence, address the issues and the problem will be solved.

    Jason
    US

  • Tuesday March 05, 2002 at 5:10 pm
    This forum is a sham. When I write a legitimate counter-piece that provides a different, alternative view, it is ignored and not posted. When I write sensless dribble without thought or point that simply says, "You guys are so right," it is posted in less than five minutes. I have seen that this forum, and now in my opinion, this source is little more than a place for the choir to get together and preach to each other. Disent is, apparently, not allowed. I am sure that this post will also not see the light of day, so I will be unable to sway others here, but be assured that I will make it a point to draw everyone's attention to this site and let them in on my experience. I accept that our views may differ and I can respect you for that. I have absolutely no respect for the squelching of opposing arguments and will let whomever I can know that this is exactly what occurs here. Thank you for your time.

    Jason
    US

  • Thursday March 07, 2002 at 9:51 am
    Thanks for the article, I have been trying to find "Bin Laden, the Forbidden Truth". I understand that it has been translated into english, but it is nowhere to be found. Any Pointers would be appreciated

    Paul
    USA

  • Sunday March 10, 2002 at 2:16 pm
    I am glad to find yet another site containing information about the truth. I think observers from outside the United States can easily see how naive the American public is, how manipulated they are and how censored their media is. It is amazing and sad to see how the United States ONCE AGAIN has managed to brainwash the ENTIRE country and what the power of media can do to convince an entire generation of young Americans to go kill and perhaps get killed in far away countries thinking they are defending thier lost brothers when they are just being used to clear the path for pipeline construction. I feel sorry for those who put their heart in America when America's heart lies in a schemes dictated by their dollar hegemony and coins of black gold. It is important to ensure American security, but their must be a stop somewhere, and the United Stated has proven itself time and time again that they will stop at nothing for money. I am not saying that I am pro-Taliban in the least (allthough they ARE just pawns for the American Govenment like so many other American puppet governments) but I do say that the United Stated has gone too far. And I feel sorry for those who have been brainwashed by their government just as planned!!(like Jason: information is out there, just look around. YOU are the PERFECT AMERICAN!).

    Sofa Flores
    Monterrey Tech
    Monterrey, MEXICO

  • Monday March 18, 2002 at 10:03 am
    I have read some leftist drivel in my time, but Cohn's article takes the taco. To actually imply that the United States is using the war on terror as a prop to pursue oil interests is nauseating at best. Bush has been unwavering in his leadership in the war on terror, not that any of you bed wetters care. Cohn would probally prefer the U.S. not retaliate for 9-11, for fear of offending someone or God forbid, profiling! Cohn did not present one shred of evidence that the U.S. is over there for oil (note: speculation does not count as facts). Cohn's article is a dangereous piece of fiction.

    Jeff
    Walton, Ga

  • Thursday March 28, 2002 at 5:12 pm
    Is Ms. Cohn really serious about her allegations? If so, I hope that she has the courage to park her car and walk.

    Ray F.
    Kansas, US

  • Wednesday April 03, 2002 at 5:49 pm
    To Miss Sofia Flores: How fortunate for you that you are a Mexican, and don't have to be ashamed of your government. I did not vote for Bush; I am a registered independent. I want nothing more to do with the democratic or republican party. We are not all like Bush, nor do we think like him. I don't know if Ms. Cohn's allegations are true or not, but I will say this: I don't trust my government, and something stinks to high heaven around here concerning this, "war on terrorism"

    Susan Derella
    Upstate New York, USA

  • Thursday April 18, 2002 at 2:41 pm
    Please post links to real articles and documents etc.. backing up these statements. Other than that it is just words and unfortunantly alot of people blindly follow plain words.. On the other had, War might be war but war produces benifits. We as a superpower will not go to a war like this unless it can benifit us. Do you think america got to be how it was by just sitting around? Come on people. Get a clue. Use standard logic. The pipeline if it is true and probably is true for all I care, is a secondary benifit that might come from us doing this. This is but one reason that America is doing this.. But America did not do this war just to get one simple pipeline installed. I mean, WTF is everyone stupid.. of course war produces benifits and monetary gains. it has since caveman one beat the crap out of caveman two and took his wife.

    Bill
    California, USA

  • Thursday April 25, 2002 at 6:43 pm
    Hysterical liberals like Ms. Cohen just crack me up. I support the war on terrorism and I'll be happy that we can get more oil out of the Middle East as a result. That much LESS American oil we have to use and that much more profit for US. Liberal hypocracy on the whole oil issue is laughable - on one hand you Greeners want us to cut down on dependence on foreign oil; while at the same time blocking drilling in a tiny piece of Alaska. When will you tree huggers drop you Quixotic attachment to wind mills. Get a clue!

    AJ
    Redmond, WA, USA

  • Monday May 27, 2002 at 7:33 pm
    LOve your article. The web is so full of similar information with many LEGITIMATE links that its really hard to challange yours. unfortunately, many of our brothers and sisters are so wrapped up in blind patriotism and extreme christianity that they no longer recognize the laws of science& nature or cause and effect.One real danger is this rise of religious fundamentalism in our own country-check out the Catherine Harris web page if you want a real jolt. The religious wack-o's think that devine intervention through Ms. harris ushered in the Bush administration. Unfortunately, most Americans dont give a crap about the people of south asia, hell, most people cant locate Singapore or Malyasia on a map , let alone Tadjikistan or Chechnya. As long as they can afford to fuel the big s.u.v., keep the cell phone bill in line, and have reasonable stock market gains every things hunky-dory. Don't mess with Texas. Rick Fl, U.S.A.

    Rick
    Society for the recognition of cause and effect
    FL. U.S.A.

  • Saturday September 07, 2002 at 5:54 pm
    Why is it that whenever there's a unfavarable critique of the Bush administration, the conservatives respond with name calling? Are they trying to up hold belief in their party by appearing tough as, the evidence grows against them?

    Mike S
    IL. USA

  • Sunday September 08, 2002 at 12:20 am
    really do not care to watch wwf or daytime soaps or government sponsored media. abc, cbs, abc, cnn,they are all soaps to suport war on terrorism drugs and mind fuc ing of the planet earth. Living in asia and america its easy to see the difference of truth and disinformation provided by the usa, Most of know the difference like you when you publish a story that you know is mind fuc k disinformation for the ..Quote.. Preserve National Security... I used to think that it was illegal to grow poppys and make heroin,, Now we encourge growingin afganistan, columbia and most everywere in the name of National Security. Know about the disinformaton gov sponsored programs to have growing of poppies changed to growing of duhhh. this drug money goes for guns ammo payoffs drug lords to insure mostof the drug profits are sent to the governments who sponsor the war on drugs and terror. Its so sad that you eleced an idiot like geogrge to collect the revenue. George as you are finding out. Starts with 10...end up with 01..

    l hoiloine
    usa 1
    ok usa

  • Wednesday October 30, 2002 at 8:07 am
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/casproute.html DOE:EIA: Caspian Sea Oil and Natural Gas Export Routes http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/caspian.html DOE:EIA: Caspian Sea Region http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/kazaproj.html DOE:EIA: Kazakhstan: Oil Production Joint Ventures http://www.iea.org/g8/world/ IEA: World Energy Prospects to 2020 http://www.house.gov/international_relations/105th/ap/wsap212982.htm Testimony by John J. Maresca VP, Unocal Corp. to House Subcommittee February 12, 1998 Fortunes of war await Bush's circle after attacks on Iraq http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=333400

    Peace
    USA

  • Wednesday October 30, 2002 at 8:08 am
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/casproute.html DOE:EIA: Caspian Sea Oil and Natural Gas Export Routes http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/caspian.html DOE:EIA: Caspian Sea Region http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/kazaproj.html DOE:EIA: Kazakhstan: Oil Production Joint Ventures http://www.iea.org/g8/world/ IEA: World Energy Prospects to 2020 http://www.house.gov/international_relations/105th/ap/wsap212982.htm Testimony by John J. Maresca VP, Unocal Corp. to House Subcommittee February 12, 1998 Fortunes of war await Bush's circle after attacks on Iraq http://news.independent.co.uk/world/politics/story.jsp?story=333400

    Peace
    USA

  • Sunday November 03, 2002 at 9:44 am
    I am surprised that truth is out there but still we are not capable to look at it at all! the puiblic of USA,now should realize that,the killing of muslims arround globe is creating hate among the nations of the world,and that is all what the enimies of peace wants,they want to end of peacefull world,just to get their greed.I must say we should join hand in hand to say NO TO OIL AND DRUG MAFIA,and thats what they are,UNHUMEN/BEASTS.

    SADI
    ISLAM FOR ALL
    pakistan

  • Monday January 20, 2003 at 1:21 am
    Hope is here, On January 18, 2003, 500,000 concerned people of America Marched in Washington, 200,000 in San Francisco, and Hundreds of Thousands More Around the World to Stop the Adulf Bush from his greedy plans. See the evidence: http://www.internationalanswer.org/news/update/011903j18rpt.html

    Allen Watson
    California, USA

  • Monday February 10, 2003 at 11:17 pm
    The main problem with this article is that its assertions bear no resemblance to reality. Yes, Unocal was involved in building a pipeline through Afghanistan. The thing is, nearly all the US efforts to build a pipeline in the region were directed at Azerbaijan and Georgia. Think about it - building a pipeline through Afghanistan is a shaky thing at best. An additional area of fact-challengedness is in the size of the Caspian Sea oil reserves. The were found to be rather too high, and the estimate was revised downward by about half of that *IN 1998*, well before 9/11 or any machinations, real or imagined, on the part of the Bush Administration.

    Jason Quick
    --
    USA

  • Thursday February 27, 2003 at 5:36 am
    I would like the people of the world to know that many American's like myself do not support Bush's plan to go to war against Iraq. We are heartsick and devestated. This Administration was not elected by the people of the country but came into power by a decision of the Supreme Court, some of who were appointed by the former President Bush. We are losing our own civil liberties and our country's surplus has evaporated in 2 years as Bush has effectively redistributed the nation's wealth to the detriment of the poor and middle class. The U.S.Government is no longer under democratic control, but we are doing our best to regain that control.

    Cindy
    USA

  • Thursday February 27, 2003 at 5:58 am
    I would like the people of the world to know that many American's like myself do not support Bush's plan to go to war against Iraq. We are heartsick and devestated. This Administration was not elected by the people of the country but came into power by a decision of the Supreme Court, some of whom were appointed by the former President Bush. We are losing our own civil liberties and our country's surplus has evaporated in 2 years as Bush has effectively redistributed the nation's wealth to the detriment of the poor and middle class. The U.S.Government is no longer under democratic control, but we are doing our best to regain that control.

    Cindy
    USA

  • Saturday March 22, 2003 at 1:18 pm
    Very clear and according to everything else I have been reading, a very accurate article. I think this would make a wonderful book. I'm sure somewhere out there there is a book on the subject of recent US political and military action in the Middle East for the economics of the oil market. Does anyone know one off hand. Please reply by email if you do, I would appreciate it.

    Christopher Crosdale
    California, US

  • Tuesday July 08, 2003 at 9:00 pm
    rahul majahan wrote a book called Full Spectrum Dominance, much of which is focused on US oil-based policy in the Middle East, regarding Iraq and Afghanistan and the war on terrorism in general

    Andrew Hookom
    Minneapolis, MN

  • Tuesday October 07, 2003 at 4:07 pm
    Wow, it's sure easy to tell from the last 10 or so comments who's feeding from the trough of the american media and who's not. I got rid of my TV on or about sept 20 2001 because I didn't want to get brainwashed and consumed by the collective fear being strewn by the media. I personally think that the evidence of Usama's close ties with the CIA should be the focus of investigation for those wanting to know the truth. As evidence points out, George Bush Senior consulted for the Bin Ladin family under the Carlyle Group (defence contract buying and selling) right up until U.S. named Usama as culprit for WTC. Here's some of the events I was able to find documented evidence to support. Several publicly available reasearch documents have confirmed that the U.S. oil supply will reach critical levels in coming years. Neo-conservative document outlines plans to take control over oil reserves in middle east. Plans to take over Iraq regardless of wether Sadam is in power. Enron goes belly up because of $3b power plant built in India that can't get pipeline built through Afghanistan to fuel the plant with natural gas. CIA grants terrorists visas and trains terrorists to defend Afghanistan from Russia to preserve for U.S. CIA works closely with Usama Bin Laden. U.S. Oil companies face indictement for bribing Uzbekistan polititions to get land sales and trading oil with Iran to get return on $50b+ land deals. U.S. Oil companies consult with Dick Chaney in private meeting following endigtment charges. (Dick Chaney was acting as energy directing consultant for Uzbekistan government while CEO of Haliburton at the time of the said land deals). Oil Company reps plea with US Government to Install a friendly government in Afghanistan for pipeling so they can cash in on $50b land deals (wich they risk loosing if indicted). 15 terrorists gain U.S. visas from the same country (Saudi Arabia) as the CIA was known to have previousely arranged for Taliban recruits to attain visas for entry into U.S. FBI arrests flight trainee as suspected terrorist and, after interigation, reports that he may be planning to fly a plane into WTC. No Action Taken. 11 countries notify U.S. that a terrorist attack is planned and give U.S. 4 names of 4 of the terrorists that later were found to be hijackers on Sept 11. No Action Was Taken! Sept 11 - Airliner hits world trade center and no fighter jets leave the ground for almost 2hrs. Without any proof or investigation efforts, Bush Administration names Usama Bin Ladin as being responsible for attacks and deploys troops to invade Afghanistan. CIA agent was reported to have visited Usama bin Laden in a U.S. hostpital a few weeks before the attack. Usama claims no knowledge or involvement in attacks in a public interview. A few days after the beginning of the afghanistan ground troop invasion, U.S. puts out video with (supposedly) Usama admitting to terrorist attacks on WTC claiming that a U.S. troop (un-named) discovered the tape in an abandoned house in Afghanistan (sounds like an honest mistake that the worlds most notorious terrorist would make). U.S. Gov prohibited media from showing Usama confession immediately after it was shown to the public. They claimed it was to prevent terrorist messages. A few days after Afghanistan in U.S. control, pipeline contract is approved and signed for pipeline from Uzbekistan to Pakistan. For detailed information on all of the above mentioned, visit: www.fromthewilderness.com

    Jeremy
    Canada

  • Tuesday October 07, 2003 at 4:09 pm
    Wow, it's sure easy to tell from the last 10 or so comments who's feeding from the trough of the american media and who's not. I got rid of my TV on or about sept 20 2001 because I didn't want to get brainwashed and consumed by the collective fear being strewn by the media. I personally think that the evidence of Usama's close ties with the CIA should be the focus of investigation for those wanting to know the truth. As evidence points out, George Bush Senior consulted for the Bin Ladin family under the Carlyle Group (defence contract buying and selling) right up until U.S. named Usama as culprit for WTC. Here's some of the events I was able to find documented evidence to support. Several publicly available reasearch documents have confirmed that the U.S. oil supply will reach critical levels in coming years. Neo-conservative document outlines plans to take control over oil reserves in middle east. Plans to take over Iraq regardless of wether Sadam is in power. Enron goes belly up because of $3b power plant built in India that can't get pipeline built through Afghanistan to fuel the plant with natural gas. CIA grants terrorists visas and trains terrorists to defend Afghanistan from Russia to preserve for U.S. CIA works closely with Usama Bin Laden. U.S. Oil companies face indictement for bribing Uzbekistan polititions to get land sales and trading oil with Iran to get return on $50b+ land deals. U.S. Oil companies consult with Dick Chaney in private meeting following endigtment charges. (Dick Chaney was acting as energy directing consultant for Uzbekistan government while CEO of Haliburton at the time of the said land deals). Oil Company reps plea with US Government to Install a friendly government in Afghanistan for pipeling so they can cash in on $50b land deals (wich they risk loosing if indicted). 15 terrorists gain U.S. visas from the same country (Saudi Arabia) as the CIA was known to have previousely arranged for Taliban recruits to attain visas for entry into U.S. FBI arrests flight trainee as suspected terrorist and, after interigation, reports that he may be planning to fly a plane into WTC. No Action Taken. 11 countries notify U.S. that a terrorist attack is planned and give U.S. 4 names of 4 of the terrorists that later were found to be hijackers on Sept 11. No Action Was Taken! Sept 11 - Airliner hits world trade center and no fighter jets leave the ground for almost 2hrs. Without any proof or investigation efforts, Bush Administration names Usama Bin Ladin as being responsible for attacks and deploys troops to invade Afghanistan. CIA agent was reported to have visited Usama bin Laden in a U.S. hostpital a few weeks before the attack. Usama claims no knowledge or involvement in attacks in a public interview. A few days after the beginning of the afghanistan ground troop invasion, U.S. puts out video with (supposedly) Usama admitting to terrorist attacks on WTC claiming that a U.S. troop (un-named) discovered the tape in an abandoned house in Afghanistan (sounds like an honest mistake that the worlds most notorious terrorist would make). U.S. Gov prohibited media from showing Usama confession immediately after it was shown to the public. They claimed it was to prevent terrorist messages. A few days after Afghanistan in U.S. control, pipeline contract is approved and signed for pipeline from Uzbekistan to Pakistan. For detailed information on all of the above mentioned, visit: www.fromthewilderness.com

    Jeremy
    Canada

  • Sunday January 18, 2004 at 3:36 pm
    I pray to Almughty God to give me the wisdom to write this leter in a simple and concise manner so that the readers can understand the goodness and true meaning of its words. America is a country founded by people that decided, for different reasons, to leave their birthplace in search of a better way of live. Nothing is more true today that the fact that America is still the land with the most immigrants on earth, and there is no end in site. It is sad that the biggest enemy America has is within our borders, and they are protected, by our own laws, to continue to divide us and afflict as much damage to the existance of the U.S.A. As a conservative American, it is easy for me to understand that none of us know enough to understand what is going on with our government and other governments, but we must face the fact that as long as we are the most powerful, wealthiest country in the world, we will be able to maintain the simple right to be able to tell the world what we think. If you question this statement then you have not lived in any other country to understand how good we have it. Ms Cohn's point of view is just that, her interpretation of some facts but not all the facts. How in the world did the USA became so wealthy in such a short period of time?. If our governement and the private sector stops dealing with the rest of the world for the benefit of the U.S.A., then how long will it be before some other powerful country takes us over for good? Please use common sense!

    M. Vega
    Common Sense Advocacy
    Florida, USA

  • Monday January 26, 2004 at 4:40 am
    sept 11 aircraft guided by remote control. pilots helpless at controls. mass murderers in control of USA. wake up!

    bernie
    australia

  • Friday May 07, 2004 at 3:11 pm
    Ignorance, fear and blind faith of the American people in "political conservatives" or "political liberals", who wrap their well paid for words and deeds of death and destruction in Old Glory (to give them the look of "American values"); these are the ingredients to the overthrow of our Democratic Republic from within our borders. Capitalism is as much of a threat to "we the people" and our government as communism ever was! Wake up and smell the money!!

    James Love
    Firefighter, Little League coach, American
    California (or Kalliphornia to those that voted for Arnie)

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CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

JURIST Contributing Editor Marjorie Cohn is an associate professor at Thomas Jefferson School of Law in San Diego, where she teaches Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Evidence, and International Human Rights Law. A news consultant for CBS News and a commentator for Court TV, she has co-authored a book on cameras in the courtroom with veteran CBS News Correspondent David Dow. Professor Cohn has also published articles about criminal justice, international human rights, U.S. foreign policy and impeachment. She is editor of the National Lawyers Guild Practitioner and is on the Roster of Experts of the Institute for Public Accuracy. A criminal defense attorney at the trial and appellate levels for many years, Professor Cohn was also staff counsel to the California Agricultural Labor Relations Board. She has lectured at regional, national and international conferences, and was a legal observer in Iran on behalf of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers.

Professor Cohn is a graduate of Stanford University and the University of Santa Clara School of Law. She welcomes comments on her columns at JURIST@law.pitt.edu.